What is a Smear test? When and why is a Smear test performed?

A Smear test is an important test used in cervical (cervical) cancer screening that serves to successfully complete treatment, as it can provide a diagnosis of cancerous lesions that are still at the stage of formation.


In fact, a smear test is part of a gynecological examination for adult women. In a smear test, which is a painless and simple procedure, individuals should not experience sexual intercourse at least 48 hours in advance, and medications related to the genital area should not be used.

A Smear test is the process of removing a swab from the cervix painlessly with the help of a brush in a short period of 5-10 seconds.

Women under the age of 30 should be smeared once a year, while those over the age of 30 should be repeated every 2-3 years if the result of 3 consecutive smears is negative. But the frequency of screening should be increased in those who are HIV positive, those with insufficient immune systems, those who use estrogen, those who have undergone organ transplantation, chemotherapy and cortisone therapy.

After a Smear test, there may be a slight amount of vaginal bleeding. He should not be worried.


Disorders and changes in cells in the cervix can occur. Cells that undergo this change are called “cancer precursor cells (cellular dysplasia)“.

The purpose of the Smear test is to detect changes before they turn into cancer. In this way, a woman can easily be treated before she reaches the stage of cancer.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is cited as the most important cause of cervical cancer, which occurs when abnormal cell proliferation in the cervix occurs. Although the incubation period of HPV, which is transmitted through sexual intercourse and contact, is about nine months, the virus can remain silent for years.


A negative Test result is a condition in which the cervical cells in the sample taken are completely normal. There is no need for any treatment.

A positive result is that the samples taken have abnormalities in the cervical cells. These results;

– ASC-US (atypical squamous cells whose importance cannot be defined): in this case, there is a change in cervical cells. But it is not clear whether this change is the onset of cancer or a benign lesion. It requires advanced research.

– Lsil (low-grade intaepithelial lesion): abnormalities in cervical cells are mild. It is usually seen as a result of infections with low-risk HPV, which is self-excreted from the body.

– HSIL (high-grade intraepithelial lesion): changes in cells are evident. It is a group that should be very careful in terms of the risk of developing cancer.

-ASC-H (high-grade atypical squamous cells): the change in cells is similar to HSIL.

– AGC (atypical glandular cells): changes belonging to different types of cells found in the cervix can be in the form.

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